Organizational behavior is field of study that illustrates the impact that individual, groups and structure have on behavior within organization for his purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organization affective ness i.e. OB is concussed with the study of what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization. Underlying this systematic approach is the belief that behavior is not random. It stems from and is directed towards some and that individual believes, rightly or wrongly, is in his or her best interest.
Ob is an applied behavioral science that is built on contribution from a number of behavioral disciplines. The predominant areas are:-
a) Psychology:- The science that sets to explain and sometimes change the behavior of human being. The contribution includes study of topics like Motivation, personality, Emotions, Job Satisfaction etc.
b) Sociology:- The study people in relation to them human beings. The contribution includes study of topics like Group dynamics, work team, communication, power etc.
c) Anthropology:- The study of societies to learn about human being and their activities. The contribution includes study of topics like organizational culture, organizational environment, cross-cultural analysis etc.
d) Political science:- The study of individual and groups within a political environment. The contribution includes the study of topics like conflict, Intra-organizational politics, power etc.
One of the most important and broad based challenges currently facing organizations is adapting to people who are different. The term to describe this challenge is work force diversity. While globalization focuses on differences between people from different countries work force diversity addresses differences among people within given countries.
Work force means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, which varies from the so-called norm. It includes women, south Indians, Bengalines, Punjabis, physically disabled, elderly etc.
Work forces diversity has important implications for management practice. Managers have to shift their philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those differences in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity while at the sometimes, not (page no 7) discriminating. This shift includes, for instead, providing diversity training and revamping benefits programs to accommodate the different employees. Work force diversity if positively managed, can increase creativity and innovation in organizations as well as improve decision making by providing different perspectives on problems. When work diversity is not managed properly, there is potential for higher turnover, more difficult communication and more interpersonal conflicts.
Good planning and control of advertising depend critically on measures of advertising effectiveness. Most advertisers try to measure the communication effect of an ad, that is, its potential effect on awareness, knowledge or performance.
Communication effect reaches seeks to determine whether an ad is communicating effectively. Called copy testing, it can be done before an ad is put into media and after it is printed or broadcast.
There are three major method of advertising pre testing. The first is the direct rating method, which asks consumers to rate alternative ads. The second is portfolio tests which asks consumers to view and/or listen to a portfolio of advertisements, taking as much time as they need. Consumers are then asked to recall all the ads and their contents, aided or unaided by the interview. The third is laboratory tests which use equipment to measure consumers physiological reactions- heat beat, blood pressure, pupil dilation, perspiration-to an ad.
Public relations (PR)
Public relations is define as a variety of programmed designed to improve, maintain or protect a company or product image.
PR department perform the following five activities-
1) Press Relation:- The aim of pres relations is to place newsworthy information into the news media to attract the attention to a person product or service.
2) Corporate communication:- This activity covers internal and external communications and promotes understanding of the organization.
3) Product publicity:- Product publicity involves various efforts to publicize products.
4) Lobbying:- lobbying involves dealing with legislators and government officials to promote or defeat legislation and regulation.
5) Counseling:- Counseling involves advising management about public issues and company position and image.
The appeal of public relations is based on its three different qualities-
1) High creditability:- News stories and features seem more authentic and credible to readers then ads to.
2) Off guard:- PR can reach many prospects who might avoid sales people and advertisements. The message gets to the buyer as news rather then as sales directed communication.
3) Dramatization:-PR has, like advertising, a potential for dramatizing a company or product.
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The steps involve in deciding on the media are desired reach, frequency and impact; choosing among major media types; selecting specific media vehicles .
Deciding on reach, frequency and impact:-
Media selection is the problem of finding the most effective media to deliver the desired number of exposures to the target audience. The effect of exposures on audience awareness depends on exposure’s reach, frequency and impact.
Reach(R) The number of different persons or households exposed to a particular media schedule at least once during a specified time period.
Frequency (F) The number of times within a specified time period then an average person or household is exposed to the message.
Impact (I) The qualitative value of an exposure through a given medium.
Reach is more important when launching new products or flanker brands, or going after an undefined target market. Frequency is more important where there are strong competitors, high consumer resistance or a frequent purchase cycle.
Choosing among major media types:- Media planners make their choice among telephone, newspapers, television, mail , radio and outdoors by considering several variables, the most important being:- Read the rest of this entry »